Neuromodulation with percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulation is associated with reduction in signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal: a multisite, retrospective assessment
Background: Finding an effective, non-pharmacological approach to treat opioid withdrawal could remove some of the barriers associated with pharmacotherapy. The BRIDGE® is a noninvasive, percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulator developed to target pain. Objectives: This pilot study aimed to determine (1) the effects of the BRIDGE on withdrawal scores during the induction phase of opioid withdrawal therapy, (2) the percentage of subjects who successfully transitioned to medication assisted therapy (MAT). Methods: Adult patients treated with the BRIDGE during medically supervised withdrawal were included in this open label, uncontrolled, and retrospective study. The clinical opioid withdrawal scale (COWS) scores were prospectively recorded at different intervals (20, 30, and 60 min) and analyzed retrospectively.